(1) Coolant temperature sensor
(2) Turbocharger outlet pressure sensor
(3) Inlet air temperature sensor
(4) Atmospheric pressure sensor
(5) Injection actuation pressure sensor
(6) Speed/timing sensors
(7) Oil pressure sensor
(8) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
The electronic control system is integrally designed into the engine's fuel system and the engine's air inlet and exhaust system in order to electronically control the fuel delivery and the injection timing. The electronic control system provides increased timing control and fuel air ratio control in comparison to conventional mechanical engines. Injection timing is achieved by precisely controlling the injector firing time. Engine rpm is controlled by adjusting the injection duration. The ECM energizes the unit injector solenoids in order to start the injection of fuel. Also, the ECM de-energizes the unit injector solenoids in order to stop the injection of fuel.
The personality module is used by the ECM to store all the rated information for a particular application. The personality module can not be replaced physically. The personality module must be flashed with a computer. Refer to Systems Operation/Testing And Adjusting, "HEUI Fuel Injector Operation" for a complete explanation of the fuel injection process.
The engine uses the following three types of electronic components:
- Input component
- Control component
- Output component
An input component is one that sends an electrical signal to the ECM of the system. The signal that is sent varies in either of the following ways:
- Pulse width
The variation of the signal is in response to a change in some specific system of the vehicle. Some specific examples of an input component are the engine speed-timing sensors, the coolant temperature sensor, and the cruise control switches. The ECM interprets the signal from the input component as information about the condition, environment, or operation of the engine.
A control component receives the input signals from the input components. Electronic circuits inside the control component evaluate the signals from the input components. These electronic circuits also supply electrical energy to the output components of the system. The electrical energy that is supplied to the output components is based on predetermined combinations of input signal values.
An output component is one that is operated by a control module. The output component receives electrical energy from the control group. The output component uses that electrical energy in one of two ways. The output component can use that electrical energy in order to perform work. The output component can use that electrical energy in order to provide information.
As an example, a moving solenoid plunger will perform work. By performing work, the component has functioned in order to regulate the engine.
As an example, a panel light or an alarm will provide information to the operator of the engine.
These electronic components provide the ability to electronically control the engine operation. Engines with electronic controls offer the following advantages:
- Improvement in performance
- Improvement in fuel consumption
- Reduction in emissions levels